Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine <blockquote id="yui_3_16_0_1_1432718173461_3154"> <div id="yiv2612723415yui_3_16_0_1_1432320294730_24183" dir="ltr"><strong>ISSN:2224-9710 (Print)</strong> <strong>ISSN: 2309-9844 (Online)</strong></div> <div dir="ltr"> </div> <div id="yui_3_16_0_1_1432718173461_3153"> <div dir="ltr">The "Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine" (PJCM) is the official journal of the Pakistan Chest Society, published quarterly. The PJCM publishes original articles, reviews and case reports on the clinical aspects of pulmonology, and on community aspects, with its emphasis on lung heath in Pakistan and other developing countries. The PJCM encourages submissions that programmes for tuberculosis control and the promotion of lung health.</div> <div id="yiv2612723415yui_3_16_0_1_1432320294730_24183" dir="ltr">The PJCM welcomes articles on all aspects of lungs health, including public health related issues such as epidemiology and intervention studies. This site contains the full text of all articles published in the PJCM. <p>Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine is</p> <ul> <li><strong>Approved &amp; Recommended by</strong> Pakistan Medical Commission (PMC), Pakmedinet, Open Access</li> <li><strong>Indexed &amp; abstracted in</strong> Directory of Research Journal Indexation (DRJI), Google Scholar, EBSCO, Crossref, EuroPub, Reviewer Credits, Advanced Sciences Index (ASI), Asian Research Index (ARI), IPIndexing, Asian Science Citation Index (ASCI) </li> </ul> </div> </div> </blockquote> en-US Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine 2224-9710 Investigating the Effectiveness of Long-term Regimen versus Short-term Regimen in Treating Drug Resistant Tuberculosis and their Treatment Outcomes <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Drug-resistant tuberculosis, defined by resistance to conventional antitubercular medications, presents significant treatment challenges. The efficacy of long-term versus short-term treatment regimens in managing this condition remains a critical area of investigation.</p> <p><strong>Objective </strong></p> <p>To assess how different treatment durations, both long-term and short-term regimen, influence the rates of treatment success, treatment failure, and mortality among patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>This prospective cohort study was conducted from June 2021 to December 2023 in the Department of pulmonology, Mardan Medical Complex, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. In this study DR-TB patients were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to long-term or short-term regimens. The long-term regimen (LTR) consists of treatment for 18-20 months, while the short-term regimen (STR) was 11 months, based on the latest World Health Organization (WHO) consolidated guidelines on drug-resistant tuberculosis. Data analyses were conducted with utilizing the SPSS (v.29.0)</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>A total of 178 DR-TB patients were enrolled in this study. Gender distribution showed 45 males (47.36%) and 50 females (52.63%) in the STR group, and 46 males (55.42%) and 37 females (44.57%) in the LTR group. Significant age differences were noted, with mean ages of 34.16 years (±16.76) in the STR group and 41.71 years (±18.44) in the LTR group. Treatment outcomes revealed an 86.31% treatment success rate in the STR group vs 79.51% in the LTR group, with death rates of 4.21% vs. 9.63%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong></p> <p>Our findings suggest that, while both approaches produce comparable treatment success rate, however, short-term regimens may be a viable alternative to long-term treatments in specific patient groups that are younger, potentially improving adherence and lowering healthcare costs.</p> Sajjad Ali Rumman Ashraf Ubaid Ullah Abdul Ghafoor Haroon Latif Khan Faisal Younas Akmal Naveed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine 2024-03-02 2024-03-02 30 1 03 10 Frequency of newly diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus in Tuberculosis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest diseases with a high mortality rate and is a serious public health problem all over the world. The disease is more common in some regions of the world, and some risk factors like overcrowding, immunocompromised states, and diabetes mellitus (DM) are well-known risk factors for its development and are also associated with delays in sputum conversion and unsuccessful outcomes.<br /><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the frequency of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) in TB patients.<br /><strong>Methodology:</strong> The present study was conducted at the Department of Pulmonology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from 2021 to 2022. Patients aged between 16-80 years, who presented with TB were enrolled in this study. TB was<br />diagnosed via detection of MTB in sputum via microscopy, gene expert, or culture, or when decided by the consultant physician on the basis of a clinico-radiological basis. Newly diagnosed DM cases included those whose fasting blood sugar was &gt;126 mg/dl or whose random blood sugar was &gt;200 mg/dl.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Among study cases, 53.8% were male and 46.2% were female, with a mean age of 46.1±7.5 years. The difference in age and gender distribution was significant in TB patients. The rate of newly diagnosed DM patients was found to be 25.8%, with 11.0% among male patients and 14.8% among female patients. A positive and significant association (P = 0.03) was found among DM diagnosis in tuberculosis patients.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study concluded that among tuberculosis patients, the occurrence of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus was high, therefore, the concerned bodies are required to implement diabetes screening at TB clinics.</p> Nazia Jehanzeb Mohammad Yasin Ali Shan Usman Ghani Sanullah Tareen Faheem Jan Faheem Jan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine 2024-03-02 2024-03-02 30 1 11 15 Pattern of Antimicrobial Resistance and Outcomes of Patients with Sepsis admitted to a Tertiary Care Hospital in Peshawar: A Prospective study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Sepsis is a life-threatening illness induced by a change in the host's reaction to various infections.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To study the antimicrobial resistance patterns and outcomes in patients with sepsis admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Peshawar.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In this prospective study sepsis patients were followed till an outcome was assigned to them. The data was collected and independent samples t-test, chi square test and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the effect of various dependent variables on mortality using SPSS version 25. A p-value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In 106 patients with sepsis the mean age was 44.5 years (SD=19.2 years) and 60.3% (n=64) were males. The overall mortality was 21.3% (n=23). Presence of DM (aOR: 6.1 CI:1.31-29.27.8, p-value=0.02), increasing age (aOR: 1.05, CI 1.007-1.104 p-value=0.025) and rising days of hospitalization (aOR:1.08, CI:1.003-1.16, p-value=0.041) had the strongest statistically significant relation with mortality. As compared to those admitted in the ICU, which was taken as reference, the chances of worst outcome were extremely low in those admitted to surgical unit (aOR: 0.027, CI:0.001-0.625, p-value=0.023). Hypertension (aOR:, CI:, p-value=0.74) and gender (aOR: 0.68, CI: 0.087-4.5, p-value= 0.62) had no positive correlation with mortality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our result demonstrates that the growth of rare organisms like B Cepacia and multi-resistant E. coli. The creation of a local antibiogram at the institutional, provincial, and national levels can aid in the prompt administration of culture sensitive antibiotics, allowing for better management of such cases.</p> Sher Ali Khan Muhammad Imran Muhammad Umar Zafar Iqbal Anila Basit Azhar Ud Din Muhammad Waqas Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine 2024-03-02 2024-03-02 30 1 15 24