Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine <blockquote id="yui_3_16_0_1_1432718173461_3154"> <div id="yiv2612723415yui_3_16_0_1_1432320294730_24183" dir="ltr"><strong>ISSN:2224-9710 (Print)</strong> <strong>ISSN: 2309-9844 (Online)</strong></div> <div dir="ltr"> </div> <div id="yui_3_16_0_1_1432718173461_3153"> <div dir="ltr">The "Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine" (PJCM) is the official journal of Pakistan Chest Society. The PJCM publishes original articles, reviews and case reports on the clinical aspects of pulmonology, and on community aspects, with its emphasis on lung heath in Pakistan and other developing countries. The PJCM encourages submissions that programmes for tuberculosis control and the promotion of lung health.</div> <div id="yiv2612723415yui_3_16_0_1_1432320294730_24183" dir="ltr">The PJCM welcomes articles on all aspects of lungs health, including public health related issues such as epidemiology and intervention studies. This site contains the full text of all articles published in the PJCM. <p>Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine is</p> <ul> <li><strong>Approved &amp; Recommended by</strong> Pakistan Medical Commission (PMC), Pakmedinet, Open Access</li> <li><strong>Indexed &amp; abstracted in</strong> Directory of Research Journal Indexation (DRJI), Google Scholar, EBSCO, Crossref, EuroPub, Reviewer Credits, Advanced Sciences Index (ASI), Asian Research Index (ARI), IPIndexing </li> </ul> </div> </div> </blockquote> en-US (Arshad Javaid) (Mazhar Ali Khan) Thu, 30 Nov 2023 03:42:42 -0500 OJS 60 Understanding the Significance of Thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 Patients: A Comparative Analysis with Normal Platelet Counts <p><strong>Background:</strong> Thrombocytopenia, characterized by abnormally low platelet counts,<br>has emerged as a significant haematological manifestation in COVID-19 patients,<br>raising concerns due to its potential implications on disease severity and prognosis.</p> <p><br><strong>Objective:</strong> The study aims to study thrombocytopenia as a prognostic factor<br>in positively detected COVID-19 patients and to investigate its relationship with the<br>patient's hospital length of stay and the prognosis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><br><strong>Methodology:</strong> About 50 patients were involved in this study from January 2022 to<br>June 2022. Complete blood count was done on Day 8, 16 and 24 intervals.<br>Follow-up was done regarding the mortality and their stay in the hospital. Ten<br>patients were detected to be thrombocytopenic; their hospital stay duration was<br>significantly higher. A high statistically significant difference was found between the<br>thrombocytopenic patient's group and the group with the normal values of platelet<br>counts. It was concluded that there is an association between the hospital stay<br>duration of patients, and poor prognosis with thrombocytopenia, in COVID-19 patients.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study of 50 patients (mean age 45.13 ± 16.78), 48.0% were male and<br>52.0% were female. Total leukocyte count (TLC) dropped significantly over time<br>(P=0.001): 6.93 ± 3.99 upon admission, 6.39 ± 3.43 on day 8, 6.21 ± 3.003 on day 16,<br>and 4.211 ± 1.4123 on day 24. Hemoglobin levels also dropped significantly<br>(P=0.001): 11.89 ± 1.99 upon admission, 10.96 ± 1.79 on day 8, 10.86 ± 1.57 on day<br>16, and 9.624 ± 0.7456 on day 24. A significant difference (P&lt;0.001) was observed<br>between groups with normal platelet counts and thrombocytopenic counts<br>regarding outcomes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Platelet count measurements on days 8, 16, and 24<br>after admission are valuable predictors of severity in moderate COVID-19 cases.<br>Thrombocytopenia in moderate cases is associated with longer hospital stays (all<br>thrombocytopenic patients waited 26 days for a measurement).</p> Salma Zeb, Zafar Mehmood, Laraib Aurangzeb, Fakhra Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Adverse Effects of COVID-19 Vaccines Among Medical Students: A Study from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa <p> </p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Vaccinations protect against disease in a variety of ways, but the process of developing immunity might result in side effects. Up till effective vaccines are widely distributed to the entire globe with fewer side effects, breakouts and disruptions to social and economic life are probably risks.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To investigate the prevalence and seriousness of COVID-19 vaccine-related side effects among medical students.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This cross-sectional investigation was carried out at several Medical Colleges in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Between July 2021 and December 2021, data were gathered. Analysis was done on sociodemographic and clinical data, immunization schedules, and adverse effects.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The study had 470 vaccine recipients in total. Only 39.48% of those who received the COVID-19 vaccine reported experiencing any adverse reactions at all. The most often reported adverse effects were mild and lasted 1-3 days: injection-site pain, fever, headache, redness/swelling at the injection site, and tiredness. Most people who received the Sputaik V vaccine (approximately 42.97%) and those who received the Cansino vaccine (about 14.25%) experienced side effects. The ages of the respondents ranged from 18 to 25, with a mean age of 17.96±7.7 years. Additionally, it was noted that 253 (53.8%) females and 217 (46.17%) males had COVID-19 vaccinations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>The vaccine's most frequent adverse effects were observed to be injection site pain, redness/swelling at the injection site, fever, headache, nausea, diarrhoea, cough, muscle pain, anxiety, less sleep, and more sleep. Additionally, there was a linear relationship between manifestations of adverse effects and a history of comorbidities.</p> <p> </p> Safia Khanam, Shafaq Zahoor, Saimoon, Haiqa Khan, Sana Rehman, Uzma Hidayat, Zia Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Unmasking the Impact: A Comprehensive Study on the Influence of COVID-19 Lockdown on Lifestyle, Internet Addiction, and Media Consumption Patterns among Adolescents and Young Adults in Pakistan <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Amid the global COVID-19 pandemic, the youth in Pakistan faced substantial disruptions during the lockdown. Unprecedented restrictions and the swift adaptation to new circumstances reshaped daily life, amplifying the role of digital platforms. The altered landscape of the pandemic-induced lockdown serves as a unique lens to understand the dynamic interplay between evolving circumstances and the digital realm, shedding light on the experiences of the youth in Pakistan during this transformative period.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong></p> <p>To understand the effect of lockdown on lifestyle, internet addiction and media usage in adolescents and young adults aged 10 to 30 years.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A survey was from August 2021 to August 2022 using purposive sampling methodology. The respondents were approached through various social-media handles to fill out the Google-based questionnaire consisting of 50 questions divided into five sections (aims/ objectives and consent form, demographic information, effect on lifestyle, effect on media/ gadget usage and internet addiction score). Data analysis was done using Epi Info Version 6 software.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>In this study involving 3600 participants, positive outcomes during the lockdown included strengthened family bonds (71.3%), improved mental well-being (19.7%), and increased confidence levels (11.3%). Challenges included disrupted routines, increased junk food consumption (22.1%), and notable weight gain (51.1%). Sleep patterns and social relationships were adversely affected, with a decrease in bonding with friends (71.3%) and relatives (49.9%). Smartphone usage for education and entertainment prevailed, but 43.7% acknowledged a sense of addiction to the internet. The median (IQR) addiction score was 33 (17-41). The median (IQR) addiction score for males was 27 (16-51) while that for females was 31 (19-41) (p &lt; 0.12). In the age group of 10-20 years, 69.11% of respondents had a normal level of Kimberly score, while in the age group of 21-30 years, 31.34% of participants reported mild addiction while two of them reported severe addiction (chi-square: 21.67, p = &lt;0.005).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>In summary, the study highlights the varied impacts of the lockdown on adolescents and young adults in Pakistan. Positive outcomes include strengthened family bonds and improved mental well-being, while challenges involve disrupted routines, increased junk food consumption, and notable weight gain. Sleep patterns and social relationships were negatively affected.</p> Muhammad Umar, Anila Basit, Sher Ali, Zafar Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Specimens: A Comparative Analysis from Suspected TB Patients <p><strong>Background:</strong> <br>Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and continues to pose a significant challenge to public health departments globally. TB infected millions of people annually. Timely and accurate diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment and halting its spread. Timely and accurate diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment and halting its spread.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The current study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in clinical samples collected from hospitalized patients who were suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) or extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The present research was conducted using samples from individuals suspected of having pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) who sought care at the Medicine department of Lady Reading Hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan, between January 2021 and December 2021. GeneXpert MTB/RIF testing was applied to all samples received by this department, providing results for both MTB detection and rifampicin resistance. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the patients' medical records.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 1170 suspected TB cases, 41.02% tested positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with males comprising 75% of positive cases. The average age was 45.60 years, and the average hospital stay was 12.89 days. Sputum was the most common sample source (73%). Pulmonary TB accounted for 79.16% of cases, with 44% showing concurrent PTB among extrapulmonary TB cases. Chest imaging revealed notable findings, with a "tree-in-bud" appearance significantly associated with pulmonary TB.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <br>The epidemiology and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) among suspected cases. Males were predominantly affected, with 41.02% testing positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Radiological findings, notably the "tree-in-bud" appearance, were significant in diagnosing pulmonary TB.</p> Salma Zeb, Zafar Mehmood, Anila Basit, Muhammad Zubair Khan, Izma Khan, Shakir Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine Sun, 03 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Physiology and Biochemistry of Serum Vitamin A and Inflammatory Markers in Individuals with and Without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a prevalent respiratory condition characterized by persistent airflow limitation and chronic inflammation. Nutritional status, particularly serum vitamin A levels, plays a crucial role in COPD pathophysiology, influencing inflammatory responses and disease progression.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong></p> <p>The objective of this research was to examine the relationship between inflammatory indicators and serum levels of vitamin A among individuals who have and do not have COPD.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Northwest General Hospital from January 2020 to January 2021, involving 80 clinically stable COPD patients and 80 controls. Participants underwent thorough clinical assessments, including spirometry, chest X-rays, and nutritional evaluations. Vitamin A level in serum and key markers of inflammation such as CRP, TNF-α, and interleukins were measured. Statistical analyses were performed to assess associations and correlations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>COPD patients exhibited lower serum vitamin A levels compared to controls, with a significant elevation in inflammatory markers. The study revealed a bidirectional relationship between vitamin A and inflammation in COPD, emphasizing the potential impact of nutritional status on disease severity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The findings highlight the intricate relationship between serum vitamin A levels and inflammatory markers in COPD. Lower vitamin A levels in COPD individuals suggest a potential link to heightened inflammation. This study underscores the importance of considering nutritional aspects in COPD management and provides a foundation for future interventions targeting vitamin A.</p> Muhammad Bilal Khattak, Pervez Muhammad, Amanullah, Lubna Siddique, Fouzia Qadir , Nadia Qazi Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Journal of Chest Medicine Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500