Gender related differences in clinical presentation of ischemic heart disease patients with concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Amber Ashraf, Saadia Ashraf, Muhammad Faheem, Umair Ali, Noor Ul Hadi, Muhammad Abdur Rauf

Abstract


Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in non-communicable group of diseases. By year 2030, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) will be the third leading cause of death globally. IHD and COPD coexist in 18-50% of patients in different studies.

Objective: Objective of the present study was to determine gender related differences in clinical presentation of ischemic heart disease patients with concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

 


Keywords


Ischemic heart disease; COPD; Gender difference; Symptoms; Clinical presentation

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