Pattern, Diagnosis and Treatment Outcome of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Sana Rehman, Muhammad Kashif Munir, Rizwan Iqbal, Saqib Saeed

Abstract


Background: Extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) is a type of infection that may occur in any organ of the body other than lung. The disease most often remains undiagnosed or even untreated due to prime difficulty with specimens because they yield very few bacilli and hence associated with low sensitivity of acid-fastbacilliinsmearandculture.

Objective: To study different diagnostic techniques such as smear, culture, histopathology, X-ray, MRI and CT scan for detection of EPTB, with its most common sites along with treatment outcome among patients visiting tertiary caresetting.

Methodology: This descriptive study was undertaken at PHRC TB Research Centre Mayo Hospital Lahore during January 2016 to August 2017. After taking an informed consent a semistructured questionnaire was used to collect basic information, history, site of infection and treatment categories etc. Patients werefolloweduptillcompletionoftreatment.

Results: A total of 2096 patients were registered of which EPTB were 718 (35.6%) however 687 patients were included in final analysis. Chronic lymph node was the predominant type 280 (40.7%), followed by pleural fluid TB (20.8%),intestinalTB(17.3%)andspinalTB(8.9%).Diagnosticapproachesfor EPTB includes AFB smear & culture (9.5%), histopathology or cytology (60.9%), X-ray (3.6%), ultrasound (10.1%), magnetic resonance imaging 6.7% and computed tomography scan (9.0%), 60.9% patients showed excellent compliance,while3.5%defaulted.

Conclusion: Lymph node TB remained predominant, good compliance and treatmentoutcomewasobservedamongpatientswithEPTB.


Keywords


Tuberculosis;ExtrapulmonaryTB;X-ray;Diagnosis

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