Smoking Behaviors and Related Factor in Indonesian Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in National Reference Hospital for Respiratory Diseases

Faisal Yunus, Wily Pandu Ariawan, Fariz Nurwidya


Background: TheCOPDprevalence in Indonesia is 3.7% per mile in subjects ≥ 30 years old, especially in male. Smoking behaviours among people aged ≥15 years is 36.3%, 64.9% male, and the average number of cigarettes smoked was about 12.3. The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking behaviours and it's characteristics among COPD patients in Persahabatan Hospital Jakarta.

Methodology: We conducted an administered questionnaire based study with 43 male subjects who visitedCOPDoutpatient clinic, 13.9% age <60 years old and 86.1% age ≥60 years old. All subjects were interviewed using questionnaires with 14 types of questions.

Results: From all subjects, 4 (9.3%) had never smoked, 69.2% subjects started smoking at age 10-20 years old, 76.9% subjects started smoking because of their friends. The longest period of smoking is 20-30 years, 51.3% subjects with severe Brinkman Index score. Clove cigarettes is the most type used by the subject (66.6%). There are 1-3 smokers in one family, both as a family member (72.1%) or head of household (90.5%). Most of the subjects were diagnosed COPD at the age >40 years old (97.7%) with group D as the largest (69.7%). 92.8% subjects are ex-smokers, most stop smoking at age ≥40 years old (84.6%). Reasons to quit most was due to illness (87.1%) by the effort to quit smoking 1-3 times. Cancer is the most widely known result of smoking (26.5%). Most subjects said images on cigarette packs did not give effect to smoking cessation (55.8%).

Conclusions: Most of our subjects have history of early smoking and quit smoking at a later age, severe Brinkman Index score and most of the subjects were diagnosed COPD at the age >40 years old with group D as the largest. Smoking behaviours and it's characteristics might have strong influence on the severity of disease.


Smoking behaviours; Characteristic;COPD

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