The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Indonesian patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Metabolic syndrome in COPD
AbstractBackground: Metabolic syndrome is a common comorbid disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Systemic inflammatory conditions can affect the condition of COPD and metabolic syndrome. Activity limitations, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and steroid use are also important causes of metabolic syndrome in COPD. The metabolic syndrome in COPD can increase mortality and morbidity. Objective: The aim of this study is to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in stable COPD patients. Methodology: This study is a cross-sectional study among stable COPD patients who visited COPD Outpatient Clinic at the Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, from May 2017 to November 2017 to determine the prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome among stable COPD patients. The COPD classification was based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. The subjects were recruited to participate in the study by a consecutive sampling and were subject to medical interview, anthropometric and physical examination, and laboratory examination. Results: A total of 64 patients participated in this study (Males = 61, Female = 3) with the mean age of the subjects was 65.81 ± 9.38. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in all GOLD criteria of COPD patients was 15.6%, and based on GOLD criteria, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in GOLD 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 20%, 30%, 40%, and 10%, respectively. There was a significant association between nutritional status and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in stable COPD. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in COPD patients in this study is 15.6% especially in GOLD 3.